Tot Zover…

Tot Zover Door: Onbekend

Bij een opleiding als de Reinwardt Academie is de combinatie van theorie en praktijk van groot belang. De studenten komen immers doorgaans te werken in een museale omgeving en hebben daarvoor de vaardigheden en de theorie hard nodig. Op die wijze krijgen erfgoedinstelling ook mensen binnen met een frisse blik. De papers die hier in digitale vorm beschikbaar zijn, brengen theorie en praktijk op een prachtige manier bij elkaar. Met de opgebouwde kennis en natuurlijk de eigen intellectuele bagage moesten de studenten in erfgoedinstellingen met een goed en haalbaar advies komen. De instellingen werden op verschillende manieren verkend, de medewerkers werden bevraagd en zodoende werden de problemen in kaart gebracht en voorstellen gedaan. Ik ben heel blij met de ons gedane voorstellen. Ook de gesprekken met de studenten waren inspirerend. Ik wens iedereen veel leesplezier.

Guus Sluiter
Directer Nederlands Uitvaart Museum Tot Zover

Table of Cantents

Preface

For the international master’s programme of Museology, a group of students was asked to carry out research on the different groups of stakeholders and their viewpoints that were important during the collecting and the initial phases of the funeral museum Tot zover.

The central point of this research is the question on how the museum deals with its different stakeholders and target audiences and what amount of influence societal, religious and cultural stakeholders have on the functioning, decision making and mission statement of the museum.

The main research question of this paper is: Which stakeholders had and still have an influence on the creation and functioning of the Dutch funeral museum Tot zover? In the first part of this paper, an analysis of the different stakeholders and their influence on the museum will be given. The second part is an analysis of different kinds of exhibition styles and ways of representing stakeholders. In the last part, research about the concept of an ‘idea museum’ is presented in a thematic way to analyse Tot zover. In the conclusion, the main research question of this paper will be answered and an advice on the ways the museum could navigate the needs and wants of its stakeholders will be presented.

Introduction

In December 2007 the first and only Dutch funeral museum, called Tot zover opened its doors to the general public. It styled itself as a museum with the ambition to make the subject of death more accessible, reflecting on the past, present and future. “The way we deal with death says a lot about who we are, our background, and the present we live in.”

The museum is located on one of the largest cemeteries in the Netherlands, De Nieuwe Ooster, which is a beautiful quiet and peaceful memorial park in Amsterdam. The museum is housed in the former home of the sexton with a new extension designed in a modernistic way. This newer building is transparent, with a lot of glass, and sunk in the ground to emphasize the connection with the earth. Through a stylish café it is symbolically connected to the older building.
The museum has already created a reputation for itself for fascinating modern art exhibitions on the theme of death, for example the current exhibition Bedrooms of the Fallen about soldiers who lost their life during the war in Irak and Afghanistan. The museum is very much focused on the temporary exhibitions and on documenting the current funeral traditions and rituals common in The Netherlands. However, it seems to be unsure how do deal with the Dutch funeral history and the national funeral heritage collection. It seems the museum does not really want to be a museum of funeral history, like a lot of similar institutions in Europe and the USA.

The part of the permanent collection that is currently on display covers a narrative in four themes, supported by objects related to funeral and memorial matters. It also illustrates the cultural differences in Dutch society regarding death and funeral customs. The first theme that is addressed in the museum is that of “Rituals” in the modern multicultural society, illustrated by seven coffins to represent six mainstream religions and an atheistic turn of mind. A video screen inside each coffin smartens up the presentation. Through another theme “the Corpse”, the museum gives the visitor a peek behind the scenes of the funeral industry.

The theme ”Mourning and Remembrance” gives information about the way people in the past and present deal and have dealt with the process of death and mourning. The old objects that are displayed here stand in stark contrast with the newer-looking multicultural display and the temporary exhibition.

The last theme that the museum addresses is “Memento Mori”, where some strange and curious objects connected to death and remembering are displayed, like a bouquet made out of hair.

The rest of the permanent exhibition is not set up according to the aforementioned themes, but is devoted to displays set in movable glass showcases on the subject of death in a historical context.2 Firstly, the struggle to introduce the new practice of cremation in the Netherlands, which was quite difficult from a religious point of view, but necessary because of a lack of burial space. The second historical case study is the rise of the romantic cemetery, with its marble cupids and weeping willows. No connection is being made to the Nieuwe Ooster, the home of the funeral museum, however. The last glass showcase gives a very short overview of the history of the funeral field in the Netherlands. The museum is closely related to this funeral field, as well as to the cemetery, a juxtaposition which is also visible in all the other funeral museums in Europe.

These museums of funeral history in other countries focus on the preservation of the funeral cultural heritage, including intangible heritage such as traditions and rituals. They all confirm that people tend to avoid discussing the subject of dying, death and funeral issues and that as a museum they want to break through these barriers. Some of them have temporary art exhibitions related to this subject, like Tot zover.
The museum Tot zover, however, cannot really be classified as a funeral history museum, but seems to be more of an “idea museum”. It is focused on the present, incorporating new museological concepts, such as participation-projects and social inclusion. In particular, the museum tries to address the multicultural aspects of the Dutch society and the current funeral options in the Netherlands. Though the museum has a historical collection, it emphasises its temporary art exhibitions. The permanent exhibition therefore feels somewhat neglected and devoid of an overall narrative that would integrate the different layers of the museum.

Regarding all of the above, one of the most interesting questions that can be asked about the museum Tot zover is: For whom is the museum meant and which stakeholders have an interest in the museum and its actions? The motive for asking this question comes from the discrepancy between the temporary and permanent exhibitions, and the ways the museum chooses to address death and death-related topics.

“Tot zover collects and presents national funeral heritage with attention to the cultural diversity in the Netherlands. (…) Museum Tot zover is an independent authority on the topic of death and on the ways we deal with death. (…) The ‘knowledge centre’ will develop to an institute with the largest library of the Netherlands on the topic of death.”
Missie en Visie Nederlands Uitvaartmuseum Tot Zover

Power, money and ethics: commercial organisations and the museum

Some of the most important stakeholders for the Dutch funeral museum Tot Zover are the funeral insurance companies and other organizations that are active in the funeral field, like crematoriums and graveyards. While the idea for a national museum on funeral history and practice is already quite old, the actual museum is only three years old. This means the museum is not yet firmly established in the museum world and has not yet created a well known name and brand for itself. To achieve this, and to gain enough money to keep afloat and to satisfy their stakeholders, the museum has to convince sponsors and funds to support their viewpoint and work.

For the largest part, the museum was initiated by Henk Kok, a senior in the funeral field and an avid collector of everything that has to do with funeral culture, both tangible and intangible. This ranges from burial clothes to urns to miniatures of funeral cars. The collection even contains an old horse-drawn carriage for coffin transportation. This private collection was given to the museum in 1993 and only a small part is used in the permanent exhibition. The complete collection is not (yet) accessible online. Kok emphasizes that funeral heritage is just as important as any other heritage, because it defines a culture. The same goes for rituals around a birth or a wedding. He stresses the importance of historical knowledge on the subject of death and burials, especially for people who work in the funeral sector and those who write on the topic of death and rituals.

In line with the view of Kok, the mission statement of Tot zover lets us know that the museum “collects and presents national funeral heritage with attention to the cultural diversity in the Netherlands. (…) Museum Tot zover is an independent authority on the topic of death and on the ways we deal with death. (…) The ‘knowledge centre’ will develop to an institute with the largest library of the Netherlands on the topic of death.”6 In this mission statement, the museum presents itself as an independent organization whose task it is to facilitate discussion about death and to further education about the topic. The museum also focuses on different cultures in the Netherlands and their ways of dealing with death and funerals. This focus has the goal of “inspiring and deepening the understanding of different cultures and to exchange knowledge.”

In the mission statement, the museum mentions its goals and, to some extent, also its stakeholders. However, one type of stakeholder is clearly underrepresented, not only in the mission statement, but in the entire museum. The funeral insurance companies and other major sponsors of Tot zover are hardly mentioned or visible, even though they provide the museum with a part of its means to support itself. It is of particular interest for them “to [let people] think about death well in advance, before you are forced to think about it”, as stated by Henry Keijzer, a chairman of Tot zover.

Strikingly, in 2009, the director of the museum wondered why a large part of the funeral field did not yet sponsor its activities and exhibitions, and send them letters to ask them for funding. It is mentioned that the museum wants to be “the business-card of the funeral sector.” Seeing this, questions like ‘Is it ethical for a museum to be a showcase for commercial organisations?’, ‘Can the museum still be an independent authority on the topic if closely tied to profit-making organisations?’ and ‘If the museum wants to represent the funeral sector, why isn’t there more evidence of this in the museum itself and in its documentation?’ immediately arise.

The ICOM Code of Ethics is usually a helpful tool to see which actions or activities a museum can undertake within the boundaries of ethical and professional conduct. In this case, the Code suggests that “regardless of funding source, museums should maintain control of the content and integrity of their programmes, exhibitions and activities.”10 This raises questions about the amount of internal involvement the sponsoring funeral companies have in the museum. Death being a very sensitive topic and also highly personal, it has to be treated with care and respect. Is this possible when it is in the interest of the funeral insurance companies to have people think and talk about death and therefore possibly being more positive towards the idea of funeral insurance? An employee of Yarden states that the company only sponsors the museum to gain more publicity.

There are some stakeholder conflicts discernable in this situation. Firstly, there is a potential conflict of interests between the visitors of Tot zover and the funeral insurance companies that sponsor the museum. The visitors do not know that the museum wants to be the “business-card” of the funeral insurance companies, because it is not made clear in the presentations in the museum. Traditionally visitors come to a museum expecting education and a certain measure of scientific truth or knowledge about the world around them, in this case about death and the way people deal with this process. Can they receive this information from the museum when it works so closely together with organisations that have a commercial interest in and therefore promote openness about death?

A second potential stakeholder conflict is the result of the discrepancy between the museum’s claims to be a promoter of the interests of the funeral insurance companies and the actual evidence of this in the museum’s exhibitions. Because Tot zover does not mention its relationship to the funeral insurance companies in its strategic plan or in its displays, it cannot act properly as a “business-card” for this sector. Perhaps this is why many of the organisations and companies in the funeral sector do not sponsor the museum or are not aware of its existence. Either they have not heard of the museum, or they are not interested in the hypothetical benefits that sponsoring the museum would entail.

Another possibility could be that there is a conflict of interests between the competing funeral organizations, in that they want to claim a unique position with their company and brand as a sponsor of the funeral museum. Graveyards and crematoria are also part of the funeral business sector, but most of them are not actively supporting the museum or its activities.

Conflicts between stakeholders happen all the time in heritage institutions and it is part of the daily practice of the heritage professional to be able to negotiate the sometimes precarious balance between different interests and needs. One thing that makes this balancing - if not easier - more fair and ethical, is being transparent and open about decisions, about funding and about the way the heritage institution is run. Embracing this openness means gaining ground for negotiating and discussion, hereby involving the stakeholders in the process of creating heritage and meaning. Museum Tot Zover is only three years old, and still in development, but embedding this transparency (which is so characteristic for the architecture of the museum building) in the daily management of the museum will enable it to involve stakeholders and thus make decisions which are ethical.

The fact that Tot zover is a museum and has death as its primary topic makes it difficult to link it to profit making organisations in an ethical way. On a practical level, this means that the museum should show which organisations sponsor it and what benefit all parties gain from it. From this flows forth that one must clearly indicate what is being sponsored and by whom.

”The provocative attempt of Tot zover to “excavate” burial rituals of mainstream world religions represented at the permanent exhibition enters the conflict zone of moral territory of everyone who has ever been exposed to six coffins filled in with sacred religious attributes”

Funeral rituals: religious stakeholders on display

Funeral insurance companies are not the only stakeholders of the museum. Those who are being represented by Tot zover also have a high interest in the workings of the museum. The most interesting and controversial case study is that of the religious communities represented in the funeral museum. The provocative attempt of Tot zover to “excavate” burial rituals of mainstream world religions represented in the permanent exhibition enters the moral conflict zone of everyone who has ever been exposed to six coffins filled with sacred religious attributes. However, the purpose of this paper is not to criticize the conceptual way the burial religious traditions are represented and exhibited at the museum, but to evaluate ethical issues related to the representation of various religious source communities and analyze if this representation really supports the multicultural cohesion between them.

The exhibition offers the public a glimpse of something usually reserved for professionals in the funeral field: funeral traditions and ceremonies of different cultures and respect and appreciation for different funeral rituals practiced in the Netherlands. This multicultural theme, so common in the Netherlands, is one of the most important parts of the permanent exhibition. The Jewish, Catholic, Islamic, Buddhist and Hindu faiths are represented in the installation. Each religious tradition has a different view upon funeral rituals.

It is explained that for the Christians, for instance, the funeral is an opportunity for those left behind to memorialize the life of the one who died and impart the message that the deceased is now with their Creator in paradise. For the Buddhist, on the other hand, the funeral ritual may be a mark of a departed person’s transition from this life to the next. Also, Buddhist funeral rites serve as a reminder for those left behind about the temporary hold we have on everything in this world. A main focus for a Muslim's life is to have their soul become closer to Allah, and, in Islam, death is what brings a Muslim to this most desired point.

As we know, funeral rituals are important social acts of a religious community. Each faith, therefore, has been displayed in the installation by a number of sacred objects that accompany the dead body during and after the funeral ceremony. To support the impact of the objects, a detailed and informative audio narrative of funeral customs is given, told by a representative of each religion. Video material of a real funeral procession is shown on a screen which is mounted inside the coffin. Funeral rituals are strongly determined by the character of the religion they belong to. For many people, being religious or non-religious is a strong defining point in their identity.

Each religious community has its own identity in this aspect and preserves it in the most careful way. Through its funeral customs each faith tries to communicate their distinguishing features to the society. By advocating their faith, believers encourage their community and give it pride. Therefore, we cannot underestimate the significance and sensibility of the religious rituals in relation to our multicultural society.

When applying these thoughts to the display in Tot zover, some ethical concerns immediately spring to mind. Why are the burial rituals and objects of different religions contextualized from a Christian funeral tradition perspective? By this Christian framing is meant an eye-catching coffin-shaped exhibition display in which the funeral traditions of different religious communities are represented. There is no need to go further into depth and discuss the way all coffins are displayed without lids, or the presence of religious books inside the coffins. Certainly, the hypothetical domination of the interests of the predominantly Christian funeral organizations (which are some of the major stakeholders) seems to envisage a unification of perception and execution of the funeral ceremony in the Netherlands.

In other words, the representation of different religious communities in Tot zover certainly meets the Christian religious standards and norms, but inevitably clashes with the values of the multicultural society. The coffin-shaped display radiates a strong feeling of framing the other religions and their practices from a Christian perspective. Another important question to be asked by museum professional as well as by the visitor concerns the educational aspects of the display. Does this part of the exhibition provide the visitors with enough information and tools to explore the religious cultural traditions related to death in the Netherlands? What is interesting about this case is that Tot zover turned its classical, thematic exhibition into a multivocal exhibit. By including religious communities, probably affected in this by a postmodern trend to embrace multiculturalism, the museum tries to incorporate these views in their exhibition. But, the exhibit does not transmit a dialogue, but a falsely harmonious representation, while just outside the museum conflicts are not close to being resolved.

As it was highlighted before, the representation of religious funeral traditions in Tot zover tries to address the different faiths of the communities in the Netherlands, but fails to do so in an ethical way, because it looks at the rituals through the lens of the dominant religion. The way in which the visitor is placed at this installation and in the exhibition itself definitely lacks some wider historical context. This is the significant element that would turn the permanent exhibition into a powerful educational experience. This context would help the visitors to acclimatize themselves before facing the sensitive content and give them more structure to handle their emotions and interpretations.

There is a wealth of knowledge and experiences left to be uncovered, for instance the role of the church in the development of the funeral field in the Netherlands, the way funeral agencies took over the responsibilities for providing funerals and an historical perspective on these themes. To avoid misrepresenting the different religions it is vital to let members of religious communities really and truly participate in the development of an installation on different funeral traditions. A good way to make such an installation work would be through video representation, without the framing surroundings of the coffins and the religious objects.

Ultimately, the funeral museum is an example of relativity of ethical standards. On the one hand, the exhibition and representation of certain source communities have been executed in accordance with the ICOM Code of Ethics (4.3 Exhibition of Sensitive Materials). “Human remains and materials of sacred significance must be displayed in a manner consistent with professional standards and taking into account the interests and beliefs of members of the community, ethnic or religious groups from whom the objects originated. They must be presented with great tact and respect for the feelings of human dignity held by all peoples.”

On the other hand, according to the theory of ethical relativism, morality is relative to the norms of one’s culture. That is, whether an action is right or wrong depends on the moral norms of the society in which it is practiced. The same action may be morally right in one society and morally wrong in another. Displaying a bible in a coffin may not have the same moral implications as treating a Koran in this way.

Idea museum or object centred museum?

As the case of the representation of different religious communities indicates, it is very difficult to present personal and sensitive topics to the public in such a way that there is no doubt about the integrity of the museum and that everyone feels represented correctly and tactfully. Death, like birth or perhaps weddings, is an important moment in everyone’s life, but ways of dealing with death are not arbitrary. Everybody has their own opinion on how to mark this point in life.

This makes a museum about death and dealing with death either a place where objects used at funerals are displayed or a place where there can be discussion about death and ways of remembering passed loved ones. Tot zover seems to want to be both types of museum at once. This creates a clash and an unbalanced feeling. The most important thing for Tot zover is to find the right balance between objects and ideas. The permanent exhibition and the temporary exhibitions consist of various elements of museal presentation and different themes that seem unrelated to each other.

The most important question in this case is about the importance of the stakeholders for the museum. What does the museum have to offer the stakeholders? The museum has potential to be a contact zone for employees of the funeral insurance companies and other people from the funeral field. The museum shares its mission with the insurance companies. Both want to make everything connected to death more accessible and encourage openness in discussions about death and funerals. While this is a laudable mission, the motivation behind it is very different for both parties. The museum wishes to promote knowledge and further interest in the topic, while the funeral insurance companies are in essence commercial organisations that gain money by selling insurance.

They have an interest in selling these insurances to people as soon as possible. By promoting openness about death and dying, they wish to make a hefty profit in the end. The museum can help them by furthering the discussion and by arranging meetings or training sessions, it can be a place of contact. The drawback to this plan would be the obvious ethical implications of the museum associating itself with commercial organisations, as explained before. The question remains: what exactly is the use of the museum for the funeral insurance companies?

The other important stakeholder group about which one wonders what the museum can offer them are the religious communities. These religious groups, which are represented in the museum through displaying their sacred items in Christian coffins, do not feel themselves adequately addressed or taken seriously. In focusing on the multicultural society, Tot zover tries to incorporate the current focus on religion as an inalienable part of people’s identity. But, by framing all religions in coffins and by not offering enough information on the different rituals, there is almost no room for dialogue. The museum tries to be ethical by including the mainstream religions, but ends up excluding or even offending them by a presentation which oversimplifies them.

In the museum’s mission statement one can find a paragraph on how, ideally, the museum wants to educate people and give information on topics related to death. The museum stimulates reflection and presents the funeral heritage of the Netherlands. This mission does not really align with the actual permanent exhibition. Reflection is something which evolves from looking at past experiences and occurrences and, when comparing these to the present, achieves more insight. Without a way to compare experiences, there can be no adequate way of reflecting. In the case of the funeral museum, the historical frame of reference is very unconnected to the rest of the museum and in some parts it is even missing. The cases with historical artefacts are isolated from the rest of the exhibition, and even more so from the temporary exhibition.

A historical dimension would help the visitors to give the sensitive and often painful topic of death a place. Apart from that, it would also allow for more historical objects related to death and funerals to be displayed. Burial rituals and funerals are part of everyone’s cultural heritage and it is important to preserve and study these. The history of cremating in the Netherlands, for instance, is very interesting if related to the problems of that time and the decisions that had to be made for hygienic reasons. In an historical display on the rise of the funeral profession, the age of this type of work and its various forms can be addressed, perhaps in relation to the sponsoring companies. The other funeral museums in Europe are all based on this historical dimension, which gives them not only the feel of a balanced museum, but also a firm starting point for reflection on the topic through temporary exhibitions and contemporary artists.

A good example of a museum which uses the principle of an “idea museum” to convey its content is the Canadian Museum of Human Rights. In this museum the focus lies more on the concept and less on the objects. Stories are told through narratives, memory and oral history. This can also be a good way to personalise the historical context in Tot zover. A digital collection online, with which the Canadian Museum of Human Rights is also experimenting, could be a very good addition to the permanent exhibition in ways of accessibility. So, it is not impossible for Tot zover to be both an “idea museum" and a collections-based museum. It would even be a great combination and provide a space for discussion and reflection on death. The permanent exhibition and the temporary exhibition could work well together and even enrich each other.

Conclusion

The funeral museum Tot zover opened its doors in 2007, but has a much longer history of preparing and collecting. Housed in both an old and a new building on the cemetery De Nieuwe Ooster in Amsterdam, the museum specialises in contemporary art exhibitions, next to its permanent exhibitions about the processes of death and mouring in Dutch society. In this permanent exhibition, there is a special emphasis on the multicultural nature of current society, visualised by rituals of different religions. The museum is sponsored by some funeral insurance organisations, but this is not obvious in the museum presentation. The question that comes to mind when considering the above is about the function of the museum and about which stakeholders have an interest in the museum from an ethical point of view.

The first stakeholder group that has an interest in the museum is that of the funeral insurance companies. These organisations sponsor the museum and therefore have some say in the running of the institution. Exactly what this role is, is not clear. The museum indicated that it wants to be the “business-card” of the field and that it is wondering why only a few of the funeral organisations sponsor its activities. The ethical question that arises from this is about the amount of influence that commercial organisations are allowed to have in a non-profit organisation like a museum, especially if the topic of the museum is sensitive and profound. The relationships with the organisations are hardly mentioned in the museum. It would be more ethical to open up about sponsoring and related activities.

Other stakeholders that are interesting from an ethical perspective are the religious communities that are being represented in the permanent exhibition. The funeral rituals that are presented by the museum are personal and a very strong part of people’s identity. In this case, six major world religions and their funeral rites are presented in coffins, complete with sacred objects and video footage of actual funerals. The intention of the museum is certainly laudable, but the different religious communities are being framed from a Christian point of view, by using coffins as a exhibition design. While the museum tries to tap into the developments of current society, it unwittingly alienates and even insults the communities they try to include. A different kind of exhibition design which does not rely so much on Christian symbolism would be more ethical to display these different types of funeral rituals.

From these case studies, it becomes clear that the museum wants to be many things at once, and that this ambition causes clashes between the museum and its various stakeholders. The most important dilemma is the fact that the museum wishes to be both an object-centred and an idea-centred museum. In an “idea museum”, the focus lies on the theme or thought that has to be transferred, rather than on the collection. This does not have to be a problem, if Tot zover incorporates an historical dimension in its permament exhibition. This would help it frame all the other topics it wants to make a statement about. It also does justice to the funeral insurance companies by including them in the presentation without being commercial.

The representation of the religious communities will in this case receive a place in the wider representation of funeral rituals in the Netherlands and be reflected upon better. The objects and ideas can be used to enrich each other in the permanent and temporary exhibitions.

The issues mentioned about the funeral museum Tot zover in this paper can be visualised in a flowchart, based on the “Reinwardt Stakeholders Model”, proposed by Léontine Meijer-Van Mensch.16 It is an abstract way of indicating the strategic relationships and responsibilities that are relevant for the museum and its staff. It is a good aid for the museum to find the right balance and the right focus. The curator, as a museum professional and a representative of the institute, can use the ICOM Code of Ethics when negotiating the many relationships the museum has. The stakeholders model can also be used as a guideline for indicating areas of improvement.

For example, the presentation in Tot zover should further dialogue and comparison between the perspectives of different visitors. An online platform could help with engaging the communities outside the museum and the visitors inside the museum. An online database would also be a good option for improved accessibility. As far as content is concerned, an historical context could clarify and enhance the presentation and the discussion about death related matters.

In the specific cases outlined in this paper, some specific advice can also be given. To make the influence of the funeral insurance companies more ethical, the museum should be open and frank about the relationship with its sponsors. To improve the display about the world religions and their funeral rituals, there could be more frequent and more participatory consultation of the religious communities. The connection of the museum to the local cemetery and memorial park could be helpful to involve various communities, as de Nieuwe Ooster is a place where many different religions come to commemorate their dead.

Finally, it is worth investing in a new strategic plan. It is time for the museum to redefine its mission, reflect on the initial phase and prepare for the next phase to strengthen its position as a unique, widely accepted and respected museum on death and mourning in the Netherlands.


References

Literature

International Council of Museums., ‘Code of Ethics for Museums’ (2006)

Laura Peers and Alison K. Brown., ‘Museums and Contact Work’, Museums and Source (2005)

Carbonell Messias, B., ‘Museum Studies’, An Anthology of Contexts , (2008)

Communities: A Routledge Reader (2003)

Nederlands Uitvaartmuseum Tot Zover., ‘Missie en Visie’ (2007)

Nederlands Uitvaartmuseum Tot Zover., ‘De totstandkoming van een museum’ (2007)

Macdonald, S., ‘A Companion to Museum Studies’, (2008)

Meijer-Van Mensch, L., ‘New challenges, new priorities: analyzing ethical dilemmas from a stakeholder’s perspective in the Netherlands’. This article is based on a paper presented at the Biennal Graduate Student Conference ‘New Directions in Museum Ethics’, New Jersey, (14-11-2009.)

Websites

The International Council of Museums 17-10-2010

Wiener Bestattungsmuseum, Vienna, Austria 22-11-2010

Topics about death 18-10-2010

Museum Friedhof Ohlsdorf, Hamburg, Germany 2-12-2010

Kegyeleti, Múzeum, Budapest, Hungary 2-12-2010

Musee Funeraire National, Paris, France 2-12-2010

Museum of Death, San Diego, USA 2-12-2010

National Museum of Funeral History, Houston, USA 2-12-2010

Tot zover, Nederlands Uitvaart Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 16-10-2010

Sammlung Friedhof Hörnli, Basel, Switzerland 2-12-2010

Das Museum für Sepulkralkultur, Kassel , Germany 2-12-2010

Museu de Carrosses Funebres, Barcelona, Spain 23-11-2010

National Funeral Museum, London , UK 2-12-2010

Museum Design company 16-11-2010


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